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Cardiovascular diseases

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a general term for conditions affecting the heart or blood vessels.

There are many different types of CVD. Four of the main types are described below:

Heart Block:

When electrical signals from the upper chambers of the heart (atria) cannot travel to the lower chambers (ventricles), heart block happens. The lower chambers of the heart (ventricles) then beat too slowly, decreasing the amount of oxygen that gets to the body and brain. This causes a slow pulse and can result in a lack of energy, light headedness or Fainting.

Heart failure:

Heart failure, sometimes called congestive heart failure, means the heart isn’t pumping blood as well as it should. Heart failure does not mean that the heart stops beating — that’s a common misconception. Instead, the heart keeps working, but the body’s need for blood and oxygen isn’t being met.

Strokes and TIAs:

A stroke is where the blood supply to part of the brain is cut off, which can cause brain damage and possibly death.

A transient ischemic attack (also called a TIA or “mini-stroke”) is similar, but the blood flow to the brain is only temporarily disrupted.

The main symptoms of a stroke or TIA can be remembered with the word FAST, which stands for:

Face: the face may have drooped on one side, the person may be unable to smile, or their mouth or eye may have dropped.

Arms: the person may not be able to lift both arms and keep them there because of arm weakness or numbness in one arm.

Speech: Their speech may be slurred or garbled, or they may not be able to talk at all.

Heart Attack:

When arteries become so clogged that the flow of blood to the heart is reduced or stopped, the lack of oxygen can damage or kill the heart muscle, causing a heart attack. Knowing the symptoms of a heart attack and getting immediate emergency treatment can limit or prevent heart muscle damage.

Heart valve problems:

When heart valves don’t open enough to allow the blood to flow through as it should, a condition called stenosis results. When the heart valves don’t close properly and thus allow blood to leak through, it’s called regurgitation. If the valve leaflets bulge or prolapse back into the upper chamber, it’s a condition called prolapse. Discover more about the roles your heart valves play in healthy circulation.

Risk Factors:

The most important risk factors of heart disease and stroke are unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, tobacco use and harmful use of alcohol. The effects of risk factors may show up in individuals as raised blood pressure, raised blood glucose, raised blood lipids, and overweight and obesity. These “intermediate risks factors” can be measured in primary care facilities and indicate an increased risk of developing a heart attack, stroke, heart failure and other complications.

Causes:

  • Smoking
  • High cholesterol
  • Diabetes
  • Unhealthy lifestyle and unhealthy diet
  • Stress
  • Alcohol

General Symptoms of Cardiovascular disease:

  • pain or discomfort in the center of the chest.
  • pain or discomfort in the arms, the left shoulder, elbows, jaw, or back.
  • numbness of the face, arm, or leg, especially on one side of the body;
  • confusion, difficulty speaking or understanding speech;
  • difficulty seeing with one or both eyes;
  • difficulty walking, dizziness, loss of balance or coordination;
  • severe headache with no known cause; and
  • fainting or unconsciousness.

Prevention

Prevention of cardiovascular diseases mainly depends on food and lifestyle. We can control heart related diseases by maintaining a disciplined life style. We must add hearty foods in our everyday diet chart.

  • Eat a healthy diet. Try to limit saturated fats, foods high in sodium, and added sugars. Eat plenty of fresh fruit, vegetables, healthy seeds and whole grains. Whole grains food, such as oatmeal, whole wheat bread, brown rice and rich in fiber foods are good for heart health. Colorful fruits and green vegetables like Cauliflower, bitter root which are rich in antioxidants that can help your body to fight against heart disease.
  • Regular Consumption of few foods like Fig Fruit, Chia Seed, Gooseberries/Amalaki, Chives, Black Plum, Red beetroot, Olive, Mushroom, Flax Seed, Pomelo, Pumpkin, Papaya, Almonds, Basil Seeds, Sunflower Seed, Hemp Seed, Sunflower Seed, Sesame seeds, Ginger, Pistachios, Malabar Spinach, Bitter gourd, Green tea, Spinach, Sweet potatoes, Broccoli, Walnuts, Triphala, basil leaf , Banana, Carrots, Bitter Stick (চিরতা), Moringa leaf , Cabbage ,capsicum, etc. can reduce the 70 % risk of cardiovascular diseases .
  • Try to control your blood pressure. High blood pressure is a major risk factor for heart disease. Also, keep your cholesterol and triglyceride levels under control. High levels of cholesterol can clog your arteries and raise your risk of coronary artery disease and heart attack.
  • Stay at a healthy weight. Being overweight or having obesity can increase your risk for heart disease. This is mostly because they are linked to other heart disease risk factors, including high blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels, high blood pressure, and diabetes. Controlling your weight can lower these risks. Try to do exercise at least 30 minutes every day.
  • Don’t smoke. Cigarette smoking raises your blood pressure and puts you at higher risk for heart attack and stroke. If you do smoke, quitting will lower your risk for heart disease.
  • Manage your diabetes. Having diabetes doubles your risk of diabetic heart disease. That is because over time, high blood sugar from diabetes can damage your blood vessels and the nerves that control your heart and blood vessels. So, it is important to get tested for diabetes, and if you have it, to keep it under control.
  • Make sure that you get enough sleep. If you don’t get enough sleep, you raise your risk of high blood pressure, obesity, and diabetes.

There are a various foods we should consume regularly besides our meals to prevent the cardiovascular diseases:

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